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Hispanic organizations play a central role in inducing the U. Congress to authorize cultural maintenance programs in bilingual education; as a result, children are slow to join mainstream classes. The continuing huge inflow of migrants makes it increasingly possible for Spanish speakers in New York, Miami, and Los Angeles to live normal lives without knowing English. Sixty-five percent of the children in bilingual education in New York are Spanish speakers and hence have little incentive or need to use English in school. Dual-language programs, which go one step beyond bilingual education, have become increasingly popular.

In these programs, students are taught in both English and Spanish on an alternating basis with a view to making English-speakers fluent in Spanish and Spanish-speakers fluent in English, thus making Spanish the equal of English and transforming the United States into a two-language country. Then U.

Secretary of Education Richard Riley explicitly endorsed these programs in his March speech, "Excelencia para Todos-Excellence for all. Perhaps equally important, business groups seeking to corner the Hispanic market support bilingualism as well. Indeed, the orientation of U.

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Bilingual police officers and firefighters in southwestern cities such as Phoenix and Las Vegas are paid more than those who only speak English. For the first time in U. In the debates over language policy, the late California Republican Senator S. Hayakawa once highlighted the unique role of Hispanics in opposing English.

No Japanese have done so. And certainly not the Vietnamese, who are so damn happy to be here. They're learning English as fast as they can and winning spelling bees all across the country.

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But the Hispanics alone have maintained there is a problem. There [has been] considerable movement to make Spanish the second official language. In many states, those aspiring to political office might have to be fluent in both languages.

Bilingual candidates for president and elected federal positions would have an advantage over English-only speakers. If dual-language education becomes prevalent in elementary and secondary schools, teachers will increasingly be expected to be bilingual. Government documents and forms could routinely be published in both languages. The use of both languages could become acceptable in congressional hearings and debates and in the general conduct of government business.

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Because most of those whose first language is Spanish will also probably have some fluency in English, English speakers lacking fluency in Spanish are likely to be and feel at a disadvantage in the competition for jobs, promotions, and contracts. In , former U. President Theodore Roosevelt said: "We must have but one flag. We must also have but one language. That must be the language of the Declaration of Independence, of Washington's Farewell address, of Lincoln's Gettysburg speech and second inaugural.

In September , one of the first debates among the Democratic Party's presidential candidates also took place in both English and Spanish. Despite the opposition of large majorities of Americans, Spanish is joining the language of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, the Roosevelts, and the Kennedys as the language of the United States. If this trend continues, the cultural division between Hispanics and Anglos could replace the racial division between blacks and whites as the most serious cleavage in U. Blood Is Thicker Than Borders Massive Hispanic immigration affects the United States in two significant ways: Important portions of the country become predominantly Hispanic in language and culture, and the nation as a whole becomes bilingual and bicultural.

The most important area where Hispanization is proceeding rapidly is, of course, the Southwest. As historian Kennedy argues, Mexican Americans in the Southwest will soon have "sufficient coherence and critical mass in a defined region so that, if they choose, they can preserve their distinctive culture indefinitely.

They could also eventually undertake to do what no previous immigrant group could have dreamed of doing: challenge the existing cultural, political, legal, commercial, and educational systems to change fundamentally not only the language but also the very institutions in which they do business. In , Mexican Americans vigorously demonstrated against California's Proposition which limited welfare benefits to children of illegal immigrants-by marching through the streets of Los Angeles waving scores of Mexican flags and carrying U.

Such dramatic rejections of the United States and assertions of Mexican identity are not limited to an extremist minority in the Mexican-American community. Many Mexican immigrants and their offspring simply do not appear to identify primarily with the United States. Empirical evidence confirms such appearances. A study of children of immigrants in Southern California and South Florida posed the following question: "How do you identify, that is, what do you call yourself?

The largest percentage of Mexican-born children Whether born in Mexico or in the United States, Mexican children overwhelmingly did not choose "American" as their primary identification. Demographically, socially, and culturally, the reconquista re-conquest of the Southwest United States by Mexican immigrants is well underway. A meaningful move to reunite these territories with Mexico seems unlikely, but Prof. This trend could consolidate the Mexican-dominant areas of the United States into an autonomous, culturally and linguistically distinct, and economically self-reliant bloc within the United States.

Bienvenido a Miami Miami is the most Hispanic large city in the 50 U. Over the course of 30 years, Spanish speakers-overwhelmingly Cuban-established their dominance in virtually every aspect of the city's life, fundamentally changing its ethnic composition, culture, politics, and language. The Hispanization of Miami is without precedent in the history of U. The economic growth of Miami, led by the early Cuban immigrants, made the city a magnet for migrants from other Latin American and Caribbean countries.

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By , two thirds of Miami's people were Hispanic, and more than half were Cuban or of Cuban descent. The elite and entrepreneurial class fleeing the regime of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro in the s started dramatic economic development in South Florida. Unable to send money home, they invested in Miami. Personal income growth in Miami averaged Payrolls in Miami-Dade County tripled between and The Cuban economic drive made Miami an international economic dynamo, with expanding international trade and investment. The Cubans promoted international tourism, which, by the s, exceeded domestic tourism and made Miami a leading center of the cruise ship industry.

Major U. A vigorous Spanish artistic and entertainment community emerged. Today, the Cubans can legitimately claim that, in the words of Prof. A key part of this development was the expansion of Miami's economic ties with Latin America. Brazilians, Argentines, Chileans, Colombians, and Venezuelans flooded into Miami, bringing their money with them. Throughout the hemisphere, Latin Americans concerned with investment, trade, culture, entertainment, holidays, and drug smuggling increasingly turned to Miami.

Such eminence transformed Miami into a Cuban-led, Hispanic city. The Cubans did not, in the traditional pattern, create an enclave immigrant neighborhood. Instead, they created an enclave city with its own culture and economy, in which assimilation and Americanization were unnecessary and in some measure undesired.

By , Spanish was not just the language spoken in most homes, it was also the principal language of commerce, business, and politics. The media and communications industry became increasingly Hispanic. In , a Spanish-language television station became the number-one station watched by Miamians-the first time a foreign-language station achieved that rating in a major U. The Cubans also established their dominance in politics.


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  4. By , the mayor of Miami and the mayor, police chief, and state attorney of Miami-Dade County, plus two thirds of Miami's U. Congressional delegation and nearly one half of its state legislators, were of Cuban origin. The Cuban and Hispanic dominance of Miami left Anglos as well as blacks as outside minorities that could often be ignored. Unable to communicate with government bureaucrats and discriminated against by store clerks, the Anglos came to realize, as one of them put it, "My God, this is what it's like to be the minority.

    They could accept their subordinate and outsider position. They could attempt to adopt the manners, customs, and language of the Hispanics and assimilate into the Hispanic community-"acculturation in reverse," as the scholars Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick labeled it. Or they could leave Miami, and between and , about , did just that, their exodus reflected in a popular bumper sticker: "Will the last American to leave Miami, please bring the flag.

    In the end, the results could be similar: the creation of a large, distinct, Spanish-speaking community with economic and political resources sufficient to sustain its Hispanic identity apart from the national identity of other Americans and also able to influence U. Supe de ti por recomendacion de BlackBeast. Hello Muro de Aguas, sorry for writing in English. On your user page I saw you are an admin bibliotecario who can understand English, so that's why I contact you.

    Adriaan Roland Holst, the Dutch poet who wrote that poem, died in and according to the Dutch copyright law the copyrights will expire 70 years after he died i.