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This is not, for the most part, the author's fault. The editors did a sloppy job of transcribing the original text and even changed the author's [End Page ] meaning at certain key points. Izecksohn sued and ultimately had the satisfaction of seeing the unsold copies of the first edition removed from circulation. But by the time the second version appeared its arguments were already ten years old, and the most recent scholarship of Peter Beattie, Hendrik Kraay, and Francisco Doratioto had gone well beyond the point where Izecksohn left off.
To be sure, these writers all respect the emphasis he places on changes in military organization during the s, but they specifically question the existence of a straight line between that process and the climactic events of November For Izecksohn to have countered or incorporated these new works would have required him to cover another 20 years in his study, but he chose to leave it as originally written.
Too bad. Our grasp of the Brazilian military Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
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Without cookies your experience may not be seamless. No institutional affiliation. LOG IN. Hispanic American Historical Review. Countries previously considered peripheral like Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, have gained prominence in this new balance. Therefore, connecting the predominant use of a given language — in this case the Portuguese and Spanish as instruments of cohesion — to the negotiations with other peoples is just a natural consequence.
Institutes such as the ones mentioned above prioritize actions as the promotion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, university cooperation and an increase in audiovisual presence. Specifically in the Middle East, the Instituto Cervantes and the Brazil-Lebanon Cultural Center have attracted a considerable number of people interested in studying Spanish and Portuguese as well as watching film productions. But what does this step means considering that up to a few decades ago this was unthinkable in the Middle East? Instituto Cervantes.
It is also a movement that is in its infancy, but important actions have already been taken. In the Portuguese case, an example was the creation of Lectureship of Portuguese and Brazilian Culture in Lebanon during the Lula administration , which began in , of which we were the first lecturer.
The classes were held at the Faculty of Translation of the Lebanese University and were attended by dozens of students at various times throughout the week. All, without exception, sought our classes because of the interest generated by this new phase in which they see Brazil: business opportunities and the jobs created in the area of professional translation because of Brazilian companies that increasingly become internationalized.
Unfortunately, because of the lack of a clear agreement on the duties and obligations between the Lebanese University and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, the Lectureship at that university was cancelled by the Brazilian government. However, the interest continued and its evidence was the invitation we received to work at the Lebanese University one more year, this time without the support of the Brazilian Ministry.
The Brazilian initiative with the creation of the Brazil-Lebanon Cultural Center was commendable, but local and therefore limited, since the center is an initiative of the Embassy in Beirut and not a government one as a national project to promote the Portuguese language, as did the Spaniards with the Instituto Cervantes. The fact is that the isolated initiative of the Embassy of Brazil in Lebanon has certainly cost a lot more expensive to the Brazilian taxpayers. Firstly in the promotion of the Portuguese language, culture and characteristics of each country as well as the deepening of business contacts between Lebanese entrepreneurs and Portuguese speaking countries; secondly in the promotion of the specific interests of the countries of the South American bloc, in which, incidentally, lives the vast majority of the Lebanese diaspora.
The organized participation of the governments of Brazil and other Portuguese speaking countries would have an immediate effect on the perception of foreign non-native in our language, showing that we form a cohesive bloc.
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The creation of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP, in Portuguese in and its Spelling Agreement — which united the spelling in those countries — were an important step in this direction, but much more needs to be done and these actions inevitably pass through the hands of politicians to establish a policy for the promotion of language as a tool for cultural and commercial approach. Angola does not even have diplomatic representation in Lebanon.
Guerra do Paraguai () - IMDb
It would come in very good time a program between the two countries to use as a platform, for example, the Brazilian presence in Lebanon to also promote companies and businesses in Angola. From a linguistic standpoint, it would also be an excellent opportunity to show to the Lebanese that Angolans and Brazilians speak the same language, although they belong to different variants, as happens with other languages widely spoken.
The presence on the Internet is another point to be developed to advance and consolidate Portuguese and Spanish languages in the Middle East, which inevitably entails increasing the number of publications and also its diffusion worldwide. For example, in the case of the Portuguese language there is currently a concentration of publications in the hands of Brazil and, consequently, little is known about the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa, wasting opportunities to learn about those countries and to do business with them.
Thus, it is necessary a common effort of those countries to democratize access to the worldwide network to offer fairer opportunities for communication with the world, greater access to knowledge, and facilitate business opportunities created by the expansion of Portuguese precisely via Brazilian expansion. The little presence in the audiovisual transmissions is another point to develop.
Specifically in the case of Lebanon, the availability of programs in Portuguese is deficient and, as far as we know, not included in the packages of cable television sold in the country; and in Spanish, diffusion is still quite low compared to the broadcasts in French and English. This doubly affects the interests of MERCOSUR in Lebanon, firstly because it creates a gap between Latin American migrants and the realities of their countries of origin, as well as programs broadcast in these languages would help to upgrade and consolidate these languages among Latin American families.
El arte de la guerra (Sarah Glidden)
But also as a connector between non-natives interested in the MERCOSUR countries, since these broadcastings are one of the best ways to learn a new language. What is certain is that the path is well known: it is the same as threshed French and English languages with broadcastings focused on other countries.
There are many other ways to promote Portuguese and Spanish languages and for this reason there are other excellent opportunities. These include editorial and film industry, which seem to have not yet discovered the Middle East, especially Lebanon. Regarding the film industry, arrangements with agreements with cinema halls scattered throughout the major centers for the placement of Latin American film productions.